August 22, 2004 INSTALL 8 NetBSD


INSTALL - Installation procedure for NetBSD/hp300.



About this Document............................................2 What is NetBSD?................................................2 Changes Between The NetBSD 3.1 release and 3.1.1 update........3 Supported devices...........................................3 Kernel......................................................3 Networking..................................................3 File system.................................................3 Security....................................................3 Miscellaneous...............................................4 alpha specific..............................................4 mac68k specific.............................................4 sparc specific..............................................4 xen specific................................................4 The Future of NetBSD...........................................4 Sources of NetBSD..............................................5 NetBSD 3.1.1 Release Contents..................................5 NetBSD/hp300 subdirectory structure.........................6 Binary distribution sets....................................7 NetBSD/hp300 System Requirements and Supported Devices.........8 Supported hardware..........................................8 Unsupported hardware.......................................11 Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media..................11 Preparing your System for NetBSD installation.................13 Formatting your hard drives................................13 Designing your disk's partition table......................14 Installing the bootstrap program locally...................15 Installing the miniroot file system locally................15 Configuring the netboot server.............................16 Put Series 400 systems in HP-UX Compatible Boot Mode.......20 Searching for a bootable system............................21 Selecting ethernet port on Series 400......................22 Running SYS_INST...........................................22 Chosing a kernel location..................................23 Installing the NetBSD System..................................23 Post installation steps.......................................25 Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System................27 Upgrading using the miniroot...............................27 Manual upgrade.............................................28 Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases............29 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 3.1 and older......29 Using online NetBSD documentation.............................30 Administrivia.................................................31 Thanks go to..................................................31 We are........................................................36 Legal Mumbo-Jumbo.............................................42 The End.......................................................48


About this Document

This document describes the installation procedure for NetBSD3.1.1 on the hp300 platform. It is available in four different formats titled INSTALL.ext, where .ext is one of .ps, .html, .more, or .txt:


Standard Internet HTML.

The enhanced text format used on UNIX-like systems by the more(1) and less(1) pager utility programs. This is the format in which the on-line man pages are generally presented.

Plain old ASCII.

You are reading the HTML version.

What is NetBSD?

The NetBSD Operating System is a fully functional Open Source UNIX-like operating system derived from the University of California, Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2), 4.4BSD-Lite, and 4.4BSD-Lite2 sources. NetBSD runs on fifty four different system architectures (ports), featuring seventeen machine architectures across fifteen distinct CPU families, and is being ported to more. The NetBSD3.1.1 release contains complete binary releases for many different system architectures. (A few ports are not fully supported at this time and are thus not part of the binary distribution. For information on them, please see the NetBSD web site at

NetBSD is a completely integrated system. In addition to its highly portable, high performance kernel, NetBSD features a complete set of user utilities, compilers for several languages, the X Window System, firewall software and numerous other tools, all accompanied by full source code.

NetBSD is a creation of the members of the Internet community. Without the unique cooperation and coordination the net makes possible, it's likely that NetBSD wouldn't exist.

Changes Between The NetBSD 3.1 release and 3.1.1 update

The NetBSD 3.1.1 update is the first security/critical update of the NetBSD 3.1 release branch. This represents a selected subset of fixes deemed critical in nature for stability or security reasons.

These fixes will also appear in future releases (NetBSD 3.2 etc), together with other less-critical fixes and feature enhancements.

Specific updates are as follows:

Supported devices
File system
alpha specific
mac68k specific
sparc specific
xen specific

This is the tenth major release of NetBSD for the HP 9000/300 and 9000/400 series of computers.

The Future of NetBSD

The NetBSD Foundation has been incorporated as a non-profit organization. Its purpose is to encourage, foster and promote the free exchange of computer software, namely the NetBSD Operating System. The foundation will allow for many things to be handled more smoothly than could be done with our previous informal organization. In particular, it provides the framework to deal with other parties that wish to become involved in the NetBSD Project.

The NetBSD Foundation will help improve the quality of NetBSD by:

We intend to begin narrowing the time delay between releases. Our ambition is to provide a full release every six to eight months.

We hope to support even more hardware in the future, and we have a rather large number of other ideas about what can be done to improve NetBSD.

We intend to continue our current practice of making the NetBSD-current development source available on a daily basis.

We intend to integrate free, positive changes from whatever sources submit them, providing that they are well thought-out and increase the usability of the system.

Above all, we hope to create a stable and accessible system, and to be responsive to the needs and desires of NetBSD users, because it is for and because of them that NetBSD exists.

Sources of NetBSD

Refer to

NetBSD 3.1.1 Release Contents

The root directory of the NetBSD3.1.1 release is organized as follows:


Changes since earlier NetBSD releases.

Last minute changes.

A list of sites that mirror the NetBSD3.1.1 distribution.

README describing the distribution's contents.

NetBSD's todo list (also somewhat incomplete and out of date).

Post-release source code patches.

Source distribution sets; see below.

In addition to the files and directories listed above, there is one directory per architecture, for each of the architectures for which NetBSD3.1.1 has a binary distribution.

The source distribution sets can be found in subdirectories of the source subdirectory of the distribution tree. They contain the complete sources to the system. The source distribution sets are as follows:

This set contains the ``gnu'' sources, including the source for the compiler, assembler, groff, and the other GNU utilities in the binary distribution sets.
79 MB gzipped, 367 MB uncompressed

This set contains the ``pkgsrc'' sources, which contain the infrastructure to build third-party packages.
24 MB gzipped, 200 MB uncompressed

This set contains the ``share'' sources, which include the sources for the man pages not associated with any particular program; the sources for the typesettable document set; the dictionaries; and more.
5 MB gzipped, 20 MB uncompressed

This set contains all of the base NetBSD3.1.1 sources which are not in gnusrc, sharesrc, or syssrc.
37 MB gzipped, 176 MB uncompressed

This set contains the sources to the NetBSD3.1.1 kernel for all architectures; config(8); and dbsym(8).
26 MB gzipped, 140 MB uncompressed

This set contains the sources to the X Window System.
84 MB gzipped, 450 MB uncompressed

All the above source sets are located in the source/sets subdirectory of the distribution tree.

The source sets are distributed as compressed tar files. Except for the pkgsrc set, which is traditionally unpacked into /usr/pkgsrc, all sets may be unpacked into /usr/src with the command:
       #( cd / ; tar -zxpf - ) < set_name.tgz

In each of the source distribution set directories, there are files which contain the checksums of the files in the directory:

Historic BSD checksums for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command:
cksum -o 1 file.

POSIX checksums for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command:
cksum file.

MD5 digests for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command:
cksum-m file.

Historic AT&T System V UNIX checksums for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command:
cksum -o 2 file.

The MD5 digest is the safest checksum, followed by the POSIX checksum. The other two checksums are provided only to ensure that the widest possible range of system can check the integrity of the release files.

NetBSD/hp300 subdirectory structure
The hp300-specific portion of the NetBSD3.1.1 release is found in the hp300 subdirectory of the distribution: .../NetBSD-3.1.1/hp300/. It contains the following files and directories:

Installation notes in various file formats, including this file. The .more file contains underlined text using the more(1) conventions for indicating italic and bold display.
A gzipped NetBSD kernel containing code for everything supported in this release.
A gzipped NetBSD kernel containing code for all of the hardware supported in this release with an embedded ramdisk-based installer. This is the same kernel that is present on the miniroot filesystem, but uses a newer more user-friendly installation program.
Symbols for netbsd-RAMDISK.gz.
hp300 binary distribution sets; see below.
hp300 miniroot file system image; see below.

A file containing geometry for some HB-IB disk drives.

A gzipped copy of the SYS_INST miniroot installation program. This is only necessary if you can't use the RAMDISK based installer.

A gzipped copy of the universal boot block. Supports Network, tape and disk booting. This is useful if you are installing a diskless NetBSD/hp300 system.
Binary distribution sets
The NetBSD hp300 binary distribution sets contain the binaries which comprise the NetBSD3.1.1 release for the hp300. The binary distribution sets can be found in the hp300/binary/sets subdirectory of the NetBSD3.1.1 distribution tree, and are as follows:

The NetBSD3.1.1 hp300 base binary distribution. You must install this distribution set. It contains the base NetBSD utilities that are necessary for the system to run and be minimally functional. It includes shared library support, and excludes everything described below.
16 MB gzipped, 46 MB uncompressed

Things needed for compiling programs. This set includes the system include files (/usr/include) and the various system libraries (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of the base set). This set also includes the manual pages for all of the utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library manual pages.
18 MB gzipped, 69 MB uncompressed

This distribution set contains the system configuration files that reside in /etc and in several other places. This set must be installed if you are installing the system from scratch, but should not be used if you are upgrading.
1 MB gzipped, 1 MB uncompressed

This set includes the games and their manual pages.
3 MB gzipped, 7 MB uncompressed

This set contains a NetBSD/hp300 3.1.1 GENERIC kernel, named /netbsd. You must install this distribution set.
2 MB gzipped, 3 MB uncompressed

This set includes all of the manual pages for the binaries and other software contained in the base set. Note that it does not include any of the manual pages that are included in the other sets.
8 MB gzipped, 30 MB uncompressed

This set includes the (rather large) system dictionaries, the typesettable document set, and other files from /usr/share.
3 MB gzipped, 9 MB uncompressed

This set includes NetBSD's text processing tools, including groff(1), all related programs, and their manual pages.
2 MB gzipped, 7 MB uncompressed

NetBSD maintains its own set of sources for the X Window System in order to assure tight integration and compatibility. These sources are based on XFree86, and tightly track XFree86 releases. They are currently equivalent to XFree86 4.4.0. Binary sets for the X Window System are distributed with NetBSD. The sets are:

The basic files needed for a complete X client environment. This does not include the X servers.
6 MB gzipped, 17 MB uncompressed

The extra libraries and include files needed to compile X source code.
10 MB gzipped, 37 MB uncompressed

Fonts needed by X.
31 MB gzipped, 39 MB uncompressed

Configuration files for X which could be locally modified.
0.03 MB gzipped, 0.17 MB uncompressed

The X server.
3 MB gzipped, 7 MB uncompressed

The hp300 binary distribution sets are distributed as gzipped tar files named with the extension .tgz, e.g. base.tgz.

The instructions given for extracting the source sets work equally well for the binary sets, but it is worth noting that if you use that method, the filenames stored in the sets are relative and therefore the files are extracted below the current directory. Therefore, if you want to extract the binaries into your system, i.e. replace the system binaries with them, you have to run the tar -xpf command from the root directory ( / ) of your system. This utility is used only in a Traditional method installation.

Each directory in the hp300 binary distribution also has its own checksum files, just as the source distribution does.

NetBSD/hp300 System Requirements and Supported Devices

NetBSD/hp300 3.1.1 will run on most HP 9000/300- and 400-series machines. The smallest amount of RAM that has been tested is 4 MB. If you wish to run X, more RAM is recommended.

Supported hardware

Each serial interface has its own quirks, and some of them use non-standard pins. The FAQ describes how to configure and connect serial consoles to hp300 systems.

When you try booting from a system with a framebuffer that is not supported by NetBSD/hp300, the screen will turn black, and it will try using the serial port for the console.

Unsupported hardware

Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media

You should wait to decide where to put the NetBSD distribution sets until you have figured out how you are going to boot your system. Refer back to this section after you have done so.

Note that if you are installing or upgrading from a writable media, the media can be write-protected if you wish. These systems mount a root image from inside the kernel, and will not need to write to the media. If you booted from a floppy, the floppy disk may be removed from the drive after the system has booted.

Installation is supported from several media types, including:

The steps necessary to prepare the distribution sets for installation depend upon which installation medium you choose. The steps for the various media are outlined below.

Find out where the distribution set files are on the CD-ROM or DVD. Likely locations are binary/sets and hp300/binary/sets.

Proceed to the instruction on installation.

The preparations for this installation/upgrade method are easy; all you need to do is make sure that there's an FTP site from which you can retrieve the NetBSD distribution when you're about to install or upgrade. If you don't have DHCP available on your network, you will need to know the numeric IP address of that site, and, if it's not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself. If you don't have access to a functioning nameserver during installation, the IPv4 address of is and the IPv6 address is 2001:4f8:4:7:2e0:81ff:fe21:6563 (as of June, 2004).

Once you have this information, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

This method of installation is recommended for those familiar with using BSD network configuration and management commands. If you aren't, this documentation should help, but is not intended to be all-encompassing.

Place the NetBSD distribution sets you wish to install into a directory on an NFS server, and make that directory mountable by the machine on which you are installing or upgrading NetBSD. This will probably require modifying the /etc/exports file on of the NFS server and resetting its mount daemon (mountd). (Both of these actions will probably require superuser privileges on the server.)

You need to know the numeric IP address of the NFS server, and, if you don't have DHCP available on your network and the server is not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself.

Once the NFS server is set up properly and you have the information mentioned above, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

This method of installation is recommended for those already familiar with using BSD network configuration and management commands. If you aren't, this documentation should help, but is not intended to be all-encompassing.

To install NetBSD from a tape, you need to make a tape that contains the distribution set files, in `tar' format.

If you're making the tape on a UNIX-like system, the easiest way to do so is probably something like:

       # tar -cf tape_device dist_directories

where tape_device is the name of the tape device that describes the tape drive you're using; possibly /dev/rst0, or something similar, but it will vary from system to system. (If you can't figure it out, ask your system administrator.) In the above example, dist_directories are the distribution sets' directories, for the distribution sets you wish to place on the tape. For instance, to put the misc, base, and etc distributions on tape (in order to do the absolute minimum installation to a new disk), you would do the following:

       # cd .../NetBSD-3.1.1
       # cd hp300/binary
       # tar -cf tape_device misc etc kern

You still need to fill in tape_device in the example.

Once you have the files on the tape, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

Preparing your System for NetBSD installation

There are two installation tools available. The traditional miniroot installer is script-based and may be netbooted or may be dumped to a disk and run locally. The ramdisk kernel with the sysinst installation utility is more flexible, but can only be netbooted and has not been extensively tested.

There are several possible installation configurations described in this document. Other configurations are possible, but less common. If you are unable to install based on the information in this document, post a message to asking for help. The configurations described in this document are as follows:

The preferred method is to use another NetBSD server to netboot the hp300 client. This procedure will not work on the handful of models which are incapable of netbooting. In particular, the 320, 350, 330, 318, and 319 might not have a recent enough BootROM. The BootROM revision is printed when your workstation is first powered on (or rebooted). Revision B or later will definitely work. BootROMs with numeric revisions such as 1.1 (on a 400s) will netboot without any problems. You can netboot from any built-in or add-on ethernet board on a model with a supported BootROM.

If you have access to a NetBSD/hp300 system, it is much easier to simply upgrade than to install from scratch. Skip down to the section on Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System

Formatting your hard drives
NetBSD/hp300 does not have the capability to perform a low-level format of hard drives. SCSI disks can be formatted on any platform with SCSI support and then used on NetBSD/hp300. HP-IB disks can only be formatted by the HP-UX mediainit(1) command. You may need to first create the device nodes for your disk, as HP-UX was never very good about populating /dev/rdsk propertly.
# mknod /dev/dsk/IDs0 b 0 0xSCID00
# mknod /dev/rdsk/IDs0 c 4 0xSCID00
# mediainit -v /dev/rdsk/IDs0

ID is the HP-IB address (a.k.a. slave) of the disk in hexadecimal. This is usually between 00 and 07, but possibly up to 1F (31 decimal) .

SC is the Select Code of the disk controller. This is usually 07 for slow (i.e. built-in) HP-IB or 0E (14 decimal) for SCSI or fast HP-IB.
Designing your disk's partition table
This step can sometimes be a real pain, especially when using SYS_INST. It's best to calculate it ahead of time.

If you are installing to an HP-IB disk, you will need information about your disk's geometry, based on 512-byte sectors. The file installation/misc/HP-IB.geometry in the distribution has geometry information for several HP-IB disks, but may be incomplete. Geometry may be calculated from an HP-UX /etc/disktab entry, but note that HP-UX geometry is based on 1024 byte sectors, while NetBSD's is based on 512 byte sectors. You should have all partitions start on cylinder boundaries.

If you are installing to a SCSI disk, you don't need to worry about the details of the geometry. Just create a disklabel based on the total number of sectors available on the disk.

A quick note about partitions: Since the target disk will become the boot disk for your new NetBSD/hp300 installation, you will need to treat the `a' and `c' partitions in a special manner. Due to the size of the NetBSD/hp300 boot program (it spills into the area after the disklabel), it is necessary to offset the beginning of the `a' partition. For HP-IB disks, it is best to offset it by one cylinder from the beginning of the disk. For SCSI disks, just offset it by 100 KB (200 sectors). Later, the `c' partition will be marked with the type `boot' and may not be used for a file system. (For those unfamiliar with historic BSD partition conventions, the `c' partition is defined as the `entire disk', or the `raw partition'.)

Here is a table of recommended partition sizes for a full install:

Partition Suggested Needed
/ (root) 25 MB 15 MB
/usr 150 MB 100 MB
/var 20 MB 5 MB
swap 2-3 *RAM 6 MB

You will need at least a 6 MB swap partition if you are unable to netboot the installer, as the miniroot is temporarily placed in this partition.

Here is an example disklabel from a 7959B HP-IB hard drive:

# /dev/rrd0a:
type: HP-IB
disk: rd7959B
bytes/sector: 512
sectors/track: 42
tracks/cylinder: 9
sectors/cylinder: 378
cylinders: 1572
total sectors: 594216
rpm: 3600
interleave: 1
trackskew: 0
cylinderskew: 0
headswitch: 0           # milliseconds
track-to-track seek: 0  # milliseconds
drivedata: 0

8 partitions: # size offset fstype [fsize bsize cpg] a: 37800 378 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16 # b: 66150 38178 swap 1024 8192 16 # c: 594216 0 boot # (Cyl. 0 - 1571) d: 489888 104328 4.2BSD 1024 8192 16 #

Installing the bootstrap program locally
For earlier models incapable of netbooting, you need to install the bootstrap program on a bootable local device, such as a hard disk, floppy disk, or tape drive. If you will be booting the miniroot over the network, then you will be installing installation/misc/SYS_UBOOT.

If you do not have access to a netboot server to serve the miniroot installer, you can use a primitive bootstrap program installation/misc/SYS_INST to load the miniroot from a locally attached device (such as a disk, tape or CD-R). This is not recommended, as SYS_INST is difficult to use, buggy, and provides no error checking when partitioning your disk.

If your system has SCSI, this is easy. Just take a scratch SCSI disk (hard disk, zip disk, or CD-R) and use any computer to dump the bootstrap program to it. For example, to dump it to the sd1 disk on a non-i386 platform:

# dd if=SYS_UBOOT of=/dev/sd1c

If your system has a floppy drive, you can write the bootstrap program to it using any computer with a floppy drive. You will need to dump it using a utility like rawrite or dd(1). Make sure to read back from the floppy to verify that the file has been written correctly.

If your system does not have SCSI or a floppy drive, you will need a bootable operating system on your hp300 so you can write files to the HP-IB device. You should probably write the bootstrap program to the disk you will be installing NetBSD onto.

Using HP-UX to write to an HP-IB disk:

# dd if=SYS_UBOOT of=/dev/rdsk/IDs0

ID is the HP-IB address (a.k.a. slave) of the disk in hexadecimal. This is usually between 00 and 07, but possibly up to 1F (31 decimal) .

Using HP-UX to write to an HP-IB tape:

# dd if=SYS_UBOOT of=/dev/rmt/0mnb obs=20b conv=sync
Installing the miniroot file system locally
This step is only necessary if you are not loading the miniroot installer from a netboot server. Follow the same procedure for the bootstrap program, except use the uncompressed miniroot file system (installation/miniroot/miniroot.fs.gz) instead of the bootstrap program. The only quirk is that you should place it at the offset of the swap partition you calculated above in the disklabel. In the example disklabel above, the offset is 38178 sectors of 512 bytes. Therfore, the dd(1) command would be something like:
# gunzip miniroot.fs.gz
# dd if=miniroot.fs of=/dev/rdsk/IDs0 seek=38178b
Note the `b' after the offset, which specifies blocks of 512 bytes.

By dumping the miniroot to disk where the swap partition will be, you're saving a step later where SYS_INST tries to download the miniroot over NFS. Just make sure that when you enter the partition table into SYS_INST you use the same block offset for the swap partition as you dumped the miniroot.

Configuring the netboot server
This step will configure your netboot server to provide SYS_UBOOT and the miniroot installer to your hp300.

  1. Introduction

    To netboot a hp300, you must configure one or more servers to provide information and files to your hp300 (the `client ).' If you are using NetBSD (any architecture) on your netboot server(s), the information provided here should be sufficient to configure everything. Additionally, you may wish to look at the diskless(8) manual page and the manual pages for each daemon you'll be configuring. If the server(s) are another operating system, you should consult the NetBSD Diskless HOW-TO, which will walk you through the steps necessary to configure the netboot services on a variety of platforms.

    You may either netboot the installer so you can install onto a locally attached disk, or you may run your system entirely over the network.

    Briefly, the netboot process involves discovery, bootstrap, kernel and file system stages. In the first stage, the client discovers information about where to find the bootstrap program. Next, it downloads and executes the bootstrap program. The bootstrap program goes through another discovery phase to determine where the kernel is located. The bootstrap program tries to mount the NFS share containing the kernel. Once the kernel is loaded, it starts executing. For RAM disk kernels, it mounts the RAM disk file system and begins executing the installer from the RAM disk. For normal (non-RAM disk) kernels, the kernel tries to mount the NFS share that had the kernel and starts executing the installation tools or init(8). All supported hp300 systems use HP's proprietary RMP (the rbootd(8) daemon) for the first discovery stage and bootstrap download stages. The bootstrap program uses DHCP for its discovery stage. NFS is used in both the kernel and file system stages to download the kernel, and to access files on the file server.

    We will use `CC:CC:CC:CC:CC:CC' as the MAC address (ethernet hardware address) of your netboot client machine. You should have determined this address in an earlier stage. In this example, we will use `' as the IP address of your client and `' as its name. We will assume you're providing all of your netboot services on one machine called `' with the client's files exported from the directory /export/client/root. You should, of course, replace all of these with the names, addresses, and paths appropriate to your environment.

    You should set up each netboot stage in order (i.e. discovery, bootstrap, kernel, and then file system) so that you can test them as you proceed.

  2. rbootd(8)

    Get SYS_UBOOT from the installation/misc directory of the distribution.

    # mkdir -p /usr/mdec/rbootd
    # cp SYS_UBOOT /usr/mdec/rbootd
    # chmod -R a+rX /usr/mdec/rbootd

    Create /etc/rbootd.conf with the following line:


    You will need to start the rbootd. If it's already running, you will need to restart it to force it to re-read its configuration file. If the server is running NetBSD, you can achieve this with:

    # /etc/rc.d/rbootd restart

  3. dhcpd(8)

    The bootstrap program uses DHCP to discover the location of the kernel. Put the following lines in your /etc/dhcpd.conf (see dhcpd.conf(5) and dhcp-options(5) for more information):

    ddns-update-style none;
                    # Do not use any dynamic DNS features
    allow bootp;    # Allow bootp requests, thus the dhcp server
                    # will act as a bootp server.
    authoritative;  # master DHCP server for this subnet
    subnet netmask {
                    # Which network interface to listen on.
                    # The zeros indicate the range of addresses
                    # that are allowed to connect.
    group {
                    # Set of parameters common to all clients
                    # in this "group".
            option broadcast-address;
            option domain-name              "";
            option domain-name-servers;
            option routers        ;
            option subnet-mask    ;
                    # An individual client.
            host {
                    hardware ethernet       CC:CC:CC:CC:CC:CC;
                    fixed-address ;
                    # Name of the host (if the fixed address
                    # doesn't resolve to a simple name).
                    option host-name        "client";

    # # The path on the NFS server. # option root-path "/export/client/root";

    # # If your DHCP server is not your NFS server, supply the # address of the NFS server. Since we assume you run everything # on one server, this is not needed. # # next-server; } #you may paste another "host" entry here for additional #clients on this network }

    You will need to make sure that the dhcpd.leases file exists.

    # touch /var/db/dhcpd.leases

    You will need to start the dhcpd. If it's already running, you will need to restart it to force it to re-read its configuration file. If the server is running NetBSD, you can achieve this with:

    # /etc/rc.d/dhcpd restart

  4. nfsd(8), mountd(8), and rpcbind(8)

    Now your system should be able to load the bootstrap program and start looking for the kernel. Let's set up the NFS server. Create the directory you are exporting for the netboot client:

    # mkdir -p /export/client/root

    Put the following line in /etc/exports to enable NFS sharing:

    /export/client/root -maproot=root

    If your server is currently running an NFS server, you only need to restart mountd(8). Otherwise, you need to start rpcbind(8) and nfsd(8). If the server is running NetBSD, you can achieve this with:

    # /etc/rc.d/rpcbind start
    # /etc/rc.d/nfsd start
    # /etc/rc.d/mountd restart

  5. NetBSD kernel and installation tools

    Now, if you place a kernel named netbsd in /export/client/root your client should boot the kernel. If you are netbooting the installer, you can use either the traditional miniroot-based installer installation/miniroot/miniroot.fs.gz or the experimental RAM disk-based installer binary/kernel/netbsd-RAMDISK.gz.

    To use the miniroot-based installer, mount the miniroot file system on your netboot server. This procedure does not work on any operating system other than NetBSD. You'll also need to either set up a new NFS share point or an FTP server for the distribution files, as they won't fit inside the miniroot file system.

    # gunzip miniroot.fs.gz
    # vnconfig -c /dev/vnd0c /path/to/miniroot.fs
    # mount -o ro /dev/vnd0c /export/client/root
    # ls /export/client/root
     .profile     dist/   mnt/         sbin/        usr/
     bin/         etc/         install.sub  mnt2/        tmp/         var/
     dev/         install*     kern/        netbsd*      upgrade*

    If there are no files present in your exported directory, then something is wrong.

    To use the RAM disk-based installer, uncompress and rename the kernel. Also, copy the distribution files to the client's root directory.

    # cp *tgz /export/client/root
    # gunzip netbsd-RAMDISK.gz
    # mv netbsd-RAMDISK /export/client/root/netbsd

    If you are running your hp300 diskless, simply use binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz.

  6. Client file system

    You can skip this step if you do not plan to run your client diskless after installation. Otherwise, you need to extract and set up the client's installation of NetBSD. The Diskless HOW-TO describes how to provide better security and save space on the NFS server over the procedure listed here.

  7. Setting up the server daemons

    If you want these services to start up every time you boot your server, make sure the following lines are present in your /etc/rc.conf:

    rbootd=YES       rbootd_flags=""
    dhcpd=YES        dhcpd_flags="-q"
    nfs_server=YES         # enable server daemons
    rpcbind=YES      rpcbind_flags="-l"   # -l logs libwrap

Put Series 400 systems in HP-UX Compatible Boot Mode
Series 400 systems can be configured to boot either HP-UX or DomainOS. To boot NetBSD/hp300 you must have your system configured in `HP-UX Compatible Boot Mode'. If, when you power on your machine, it does not present a menu like the following, then you need to change your configuration.
Copyright 1990,
Hewlett-Packard Company.
All Rights Reserved.

BOOTROM Series 400 Rev. 1.1 MD12 REV 1.2 1990/08/07.14:27:08 [...]

  1. Attach a Domain keyboard or an HIL keyboard.
    The BootROM knows how to use either, even if NetBSD doesn't yet.

  2. Put your system into `service mode'.
    For a 4XXs, there's a toggle switch on the back of the machine (near the top). For a 4XXt or 4XXdl, press the green button on the front, behind the silly door. For a 425e, there's a toggle switch on the back of the machine (in the middle). The second green LED should light up.

  3. Reset the machine.
    Press the reset button. For a 4XXs, ther's a small plunger on the back of the machine (near the top). For a 4XXt or 4XXdl, there's a white button on the front, behind the silly door. For a 425e, there's a button on the back of the machine.

  4. Press RETURN to get the Domain boot prompt (>).
    You can type H to get a list of available commands.

  5. Type the following sequence of commands to convert to `HP-UX Compatible Boot Mode'.
    > CF
    Type [key] RETURN ? 2
    Type [key] RETURN ? 2
    Type T or P  RETURN ? P
    Type [key] RETURN ? E

  6. Be sure to turn `service mode' off when you're done. It may prevent you from selecting which device to boot from.
See the FAQ for additional help.
Searching for a bootable system
All the early hp300 Boot ROMs are very primitive and only allow a few simple operations. You can only interact with it after it is first powered on. If you reboot the machine, it will ignore anything you type and start loading the same OS you previously booted.

At any time after it recognizes the keyboard, while it is doing its self test or searching for a bootable system, you can hit reset to return it to a cold-boot configuration. On HIL keybaords, this is control-shift-break, where break is the key in the upper left (where escape is on sane keyboards). There is no equivalent over serial terminal, you'll need to power-cycle your machine.

After it beeps (i.e. recognizes the HIL keyboard), press RETURN twice to get the list of bootable devices.


The newer HP Boot ROM, present on Series 400 machines and some of the later 300s (345, 375, 380, 382, 385) is capable of a little bit more. To select which device to boot from, press RETURN once after it beeps twice (i.e. recognizes the HIL keyboard) to get the list of bootable devices.

RESET To Power-Up, SPACE clears input   Select System, type RETURN       ?

The FAQ lists additional things you can do with the BootROM and describes the order the BootROM looks for bootable devices.

A normal power-on sequence (from a 400s) looks something like this:

Copyright 1990,
Hewlett-Packard Company.
All Rights Reserved.

BOOTROM Series 400 Rev. 1.1 MD12 REV 1.2 1990/08/07.14:27:08 MC68030 Processor MC68882 Coprocessor Configuration EEPROM Utility Chip at 41 HP-HIL.Keyboard RESET To Power-Up Loading Memory Self-Test Mode RESET To Power-Up, SPACE clears input Select System, type RETURN HP-IB DMA-C0 Self-Test Mode RAM 33554158 Bytes HP98644 (RS-232) at 9 HP PARALLEL at 12 HP98265 (SCSI S 32) at 14 HP98643 (LAN) at 21, AUI, 080009115DB3 Bit Mapped Video at 133 (Console) System Search Mode :RODIME RO3000T, 1406, 0 1Z SYS_UBOOT :LAN080009115DB3, 2100, 0 2Z SYS_UBOOT :HP7959, 702, 0, 0 1H SYSHPUX 1D SYSDEBUG 1B SYSBCKUP :HP9122, 0700, 0, 0 3Z SYS_INST

You should see your bootstrap program somewhere in this list. If it's not here, then your hp300 can't boot it and there's a problem somewhere. To boot from a particular device, type in the two character name for it and press RETURN. In this example, you'd type 2Z to boot from the network.

Selecting ethernet port on Series 400
Series 400 machines have two ethernet media types built into the motherboard. You may only use one at a time. When your Series 400 workstation goes through the self-test when powered on or rebooted, it will say one of the following:
HP98643 (LAN) at 21, AUI
HP98643 (LAN) at 21, Thin

If the wrong type of network is selected, you will need to change the ethernet port. You will need to open the case (4XXt, 4XXdl, 4XXe) or remove the motherboard (4XXs) to access the jumper. Be sure to use static-prevention measures, as you could easily fry your motherboard from carelessness. If you are uncomfortable with this, ask a friend who is aware of these issues. There is a block of 8 jumpers at the rear of the motherboard, labeled AUI/Thin. You will need to put the jumpers in the position necessary for your type of ethernet.

Running SYS_INST
This step is necessary only if you cannot netboot.

Chose SYS_INST from the list of bootable devices that the BootROM found. SYS_INST will load and prompt you for a command.

A quick note about disk numbers: While in the SYS_INST program, you may use different unit numbers for the disks than when the NetBSD kernel is running. The unit number for a disk while in SYS_INST is calculated with the following formula:

unit = (controller * 8) + slaveID

Controllers are numbered 0, 1, ... starting with the lowest select code. SCSI controllers and HP-IB controllers are counted separately. Therefore, if you had a system with an internal HP-IB interface at select code 7, a fast HP-IB interface at select code 14, and a SCSI interface at select code 16, unit numbers might be something like the following:

Location Unit
HP-IB at 7, slaveID 2 2 (disk: rd2)
HP-IB at 14, slaveID 5 13 (disk: rd13)
SCSI at 16, slaveID 0 0 (disk: sd0)

You will need to place a disklabel on the disk.

sys_inst> disklabel

It may be worth selecting the zap option initially to ensure that the disklabel area is clear. This may be especially important if an HP-UX boot block had been previously installed on the disk.

Select the edit option, and answer the questions about your disk. There may be several questions which you may not be sure of the answers to. Listed below are guidelines for SCSI and HP-IB disks:

Bad sectoring? NO
Ecc? NO
Interleave? 1
Trackskew? 0
Cylinderskew? 0
Headswitch? 0
Track-to-track? 0
Drivedata 0-4? 0 (for all Drivedata values)

Next, you will be asked to fill out the partition map. You must provide responses for all 8 partitions. Remember, you must have the sector offset for the `b' partition match the location you dumped the miniroot file system image. Set the size and offset of any unused partition to 0. Note that sizes and offsets are expressed in `n sectors', assuming 512 byte sectors. Care should be taken to ensure that partitions begin and end on cylinder boundaries (i.e. size and offset is an even multiple of the number of sectors per cylinder). While this is not technically necessary, it is generally encouraged.

When setting the partition type of the `b' partition, make sure to specify it as an ffs partition so that the miniroot can be mounted (even if this will be a swap partition). You will be given a chance to clean this up later in the installation process.

Once you have edited the label, select the show option to verify that it is correct. If so, select write and done. Otherwise, you may re-edit the label.

In an earlier step, we already copied the miniroot image to the target disk.

Boot from the miniroot file system.

sys_inst> boot

Enter the disk from which to boot. The kernel in the miniroot file system will be booted into single-user mode.

Chosing a kernel location
Once the bootstrap program SYS_UBOOT has started, it will pause and let you chose a kernel location, name, and options:
>> NetBSD/hp300 Primary Boot, Revision 1.13
>> (gregm@mcgarry, Mon Apr 15 08:46:32 NZST 2002)
>> HP 9000/425e SPU
>> Enter "reset" to reset system.
Boot: [[[le0a:]netbsd][-a][-c][-d][-s][-v][-q]] :-

If your kernel is on a different device than SYS_UBOOT then you will need to type in where to find it. This is the case, for example, if your model is incapable of netbooting and you started SYS_UBOOT from a floppy, and the miniroot installer is on a netboot server. In this case, you'd type in `le0' at the prompt.

If you've installed the miniroot on your disk, you can always boot from that by using partition `b' when prompted by SYS_UBOOT. For example, to boot the miniroot from an HP-IB disk on controller 0 at slave ID 2, you'd type:

Boot: [[[rd0a:]netbsd][-a][-c][-d][-s][-v][-q]] :-  rd2b:netbsd

Installing the NetBSD System

The miniroot's install program is very simple to use. It will guide you through the entire process, and is well automated. If you need to restart the installer, hit Control-C which will return you to a shell prompt. From there, just start it over:

# ./install

The experimental RAM disk-based installer is not described here, but is very self-explanatory.

The miniroot's install program will:

  1. Allow you to place disklabels on additional disks. Note that partition sizes and offsets are expressed in sectors. When you fill out the disklabel, you will need to specify partition types and file system parameters. If you're unsure what these values should be, use the following:
    fstype: 4.2BSD
    fsize: 1024
    bsize: 4096
    cpg: 16

    If the partition will be a swap partition, use the following:

    fstype: swap
    fsize: 0 (or blank)
    bsize: 0 (or blank)
    cpg: 0 (or blank)

    You will also need to specify the number of partitions. The number of partitions is determined by the `index' of the last partition letter, where a = 1, b = 2, etc. Therefore, if the last filled partition is partition `g', there are 7 partitions. Any partitions with size of 0 may be removed from the list.

    Anything after a `#' is a comment.

    The following is an example disklabel partition map:

    7 partitions:
    #      size   offset    fstype   [fsize bsize   cpg]
    a:    30912      448    4.2BSD     1024  8192    16   # (Cyl.    1 - 69)
    b:   130816    31360      swap                        # (Cyl.   70 - 361)
    c:  1296512        0      boot                        # (Cyl.    0 - 2893)
    e:    81984   162176    4.2BSD     1024  8192    16   # (Cyl.  362 - 544)
    f:   102592   244160    4.2BSD     1024  4096    16   # (Cyl.  545 - 773)
    g:   949760   346752    4.2BSD     1024  8192    16   # (Cyl.  774 - 2893)

  2. Create file systems on target partitions.

  3. Allow you to set up your system's network configuration. Remember to specify host names without the domain name appended to the end. For example use foo instead of If, during the process of configuring the network interfaces, you make a mistake, you will be able to re-configure that interface by simply selecting it for configuration again.

  4. Mount target file systems. You will be given the opportunity to manually edit the resulting /etc/fstab.

  5. Extract binary sets from the media of your choice.

  6. Copy configuration information gathered during the installation process to your root file system (/).

  7. Make device nodes in your root file system under /dev.

  8. Copy a new kernel onto your root partition (/).

  9. Install a new boot block.

  10. Check your file systems for integrity.

First-time installation on a system through a method other than the installation program is possible, but strongly discouraged.

Post installation steps

Once you've got the operating system running, there are a few things you need to do in order to bring the system into a properly configured state, with the most important ones described below.

  1. Configuring /etc/rc.conf

    If you or the installation software haven't done any configuration of /etc/rc.conf (sysinst usually will), the system will drop you into single user mode on first reboot with the message

           /etc/rc.conf is not configured. Multiuser boot aborted.

    and with the root file system (/) mounted read-only. When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply press RETURN to get to a /bin/sh prompt. If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with hp300h for a local console, or whatever is appropriate for your serial console. and press RETURN. You may need to type one of the following commands to get your delete key to work properly, depending on your keyboard:
           # stty erase '^h'
           # stty erase '^?'
    At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the /etc directory. You will need to mount your root file system read/write with:
           # /sbin/mount -u -w /
    Change to the /etc directory and take a look at the /etc/rc.conf file. Modify it to your tastes, making sure that you set rc_configured=YES so that your changes will be enabled and a multi-user boot can proceed. Default values for the various programs can be found in /etc/defaults/rc.conf, where some in-line documentation may be found. More complete documentation can be found in rc.conf(5).

    If your /usr directory is on a separate partition and you do not know how to use ed, you will have to mount your /usr partition to gain access to ex or vi. Do the following:

           # mount /usr
           # export TERM=hp300h

    If you have /var on a separate partition, you need to repeat that step for it. After that, you can edit /etc/rc.conf with vi(1). When you have finished, type exit at the prompt to leave the single-user shell and continue with the multi-user boot.

    Other values that need to be set in /etc/rc.conf for a networked environment are hostname and possibly defaultroute, furthermore add an ifconfig_int for your <int> network interface, along the lines of

           ifconfig_le0="inet netmask"

    or, if you have in /etc/hosts:

           ifconfig_le0="inet netmask"

    To enable proper hostname resolution, you will also want to add an /etc/resolv.conf file or (if you are feeling a little more adventurous) run named(8). See resolv.conf(5) or named(8) for more information. Instead of manually configuring network and naming service, DHCP can be used by setting dhclient=YES in /etc/rc.conf.

    Other files in /etc that may require modification or setting up include /etc/mailer.conf, /etc/nsswitch.conf, and /etc/wscons.conf.

  2. Logging in

    After reboot, you can log in as root at the login prompt. Unless you've set a password in sysinst, there is no initial password. If you're using the machine in a networked environment, you should create an account for yourself (see below) and protect it and the ``root'' account with good passwords. By default, root login from the network is disabled (even via ssh(1)). One way to become root over the network is to log in as a different user that belongs to group ``wheel'' (see group(5)) and use su(1) to become root.

    Unless you have connected an unusual terminal device as the console you can just press RETURN when it prompts for Terminal type? [...].

  3. Adding accounts

    Use the useradd(8) command to add accounts to your system. Do not edit /etc/passwd directly! See vipw(8) and pwd_mkdb(8) if you want to edit the password database.

  4. The X Window System

    If you have installed the X Window System, look at the files in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc for information. Also, you may want to read through the NetBSD/hp300 FAQ entry on X11.

    Don't forget to add /usr/X11R6/bin to your path in your shell's dot file so that you have access to the X binaries.

  5. Installing third party packages

    If you wish to install any of the software freely available for UNIX-like systems you are strongly advised to first check the NetBSD package system. This automatically handles any changes necessary to make the software run on NetBSD, retrieval and installation of any other packages on which the software may depend, and simplifies installation (and deinstallation), both from source and precompiled binaries.

  6. Misc

Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System

It is possible to easily upgrade your existing NetBSD/hp300 system using the upgrade program in the miniroot or by manually performing the same steps as the miniroot upgrade program.

Upgrading using the miniroot
If you wish to upgrade your system by this method, simply select the upgrade option once the miniroot has booted. The upgrade program with then guide you through the procedure. While you can boot the miniroot using the same methods described above for a fresh install of NetBSD/hp300 there are easier and less intrusive options since your disk is already labeled and bootable. The easiest is to dump the miniroot to your swap partition and boot from that.

  1. Download the files you'll need to upgrade

    In particular, make sure you have on your locally mounted file systems base.tgz and miniroot.fs.gz

  2. Boot your hp300 into `single-user mode':

    Follow the instructions in the section above on Chosing a kernel location and type -s at the prompt.

  3. Extract and install a new boot block:

    Make sure you install the bootstrap program distributed with this version of NetBSD/hp300.

    # tar -xpvzf base.tgz ./usr/mdec
    # disklabel -B -b ./usr/mdec/uboot.lif  root-disk
    E.g.: root-disk could be sd0 or rd0. We'll assume rd0 for now.

  4. Install the miniroot file system:

    First make sure that your `b' partition has enough room for the uncompressed miniroot (otherwise it might overwrite another partition or the end of the disk).

    # gunzip miniroot.fs.gz
    # dd if=miniroot.fs of=/dev/rd0b

  5. Boot the miniroot:

    Follow the instructions in the section above on Chosing a kernel location and type rd0b:netbsd at the prompt.

The upgrade program will:

  1. Enable the network based on your system's current network configuration.

  2. Mount your existing file systems.

  3. Extract binary sets from the media of your choice.

  4. Fixup your system's existing /etc/fstab, changing the occurrences of ufs to ffs and let you edit the resulting file.

  5. Make new device nodes in your root file system under /dev.

  6. Don't forget to extract the kern set from the distribution.

    The existing kernel will not be backed up; doing so would be pointless, since older kernels may not be capable of running NetBSD3.1.1 executables.

  7. Install a new boot block.

  8. Check your file systems for integrity.

  9. You'll have to reboot your system manually
Manual upgrade
While using the miniroot's upgrade program is the preferred method of upgrading your system, it is possible to upgrade your system manually. To do this, follow the following procedure:

  1. Place at least the base binary set in a file system accessible to the target machine. A local file system is preferred, since the NFS subsystem in the NetBSD3.1.1 kernel may be incompatible with your old binaries.

  2. Back up your pre-existing kernel and copy the 3.1.1 kernel into your root partition (/).

  3. Extract and install a new boot block:

    Make sure you install the bootstrap program distributed with this version of NetBSD/hp300.

    # tar -xpvzf base.tgz ./usr/mdec
    # disklabel -B -b ./usr/mdec/uboot.lif  root-disk
    E.g.: root-disk could be sd0 or rd0.

  4. Reboot with the 3.1.1 kernel into single-user mode.

  5. Check all file systems:

           # /sbin/fsck -pf

  6. Mount all local file systems:

           # /sbin/mount -a -t nonfs

  7. If you keep /usr or /usr/share on an NFS server, you will want to mount those file systems as well. To do this, you will need to enable the network:

           # sh /etc/rc.d/network start

  8. Make sure you are in the root file system (/) and extract the base binary set:

           # cd /
           # pax -zrvpe -f /path/to/base.tgz

  9. Sync the file systems:

           # sync

  10. At this point you may extract any other binary sets you may have placed on local file systems, or you may wish to extract additional sets at a later time. To extract these sets, use the following commands:

           # cd /
           # pax -zrvpe -f path_to_set

You should not extract the etc set if upgrading. Instead, you should extract that set into another area and carefully merge the changes by hand.

Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases

Users upgrading from previous versions of NetBSD may wish to bear the following problems and compatibility issues in mind when upgrading to NetBSD3.1.1.

Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 3.1 and older releases.
It is very important that you populate the directory /etc/pam.d with appropriate configuration files for the Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) because you will not be able to login any more otherwise. Using postinstall as described below will take care of this. Please refer to for documentation about PAM.

The following issues can generally be resolved by extracting the etc set into a temporary directory and running postinstall:

postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz check
postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz fix

Issues fixed by postinstall: